Science And Society Essay

But science in this phase was still, to our modern view, unscientific in two major respects—it was traditional and it was esoteric.

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The next, or traditional-esoteric phase, lasted for thousands instead of hundreds of thousands of years. At best it was the acquisition of freedom and self-consciousness by the scientific spirit, not the emergence of a wholly new activity to be called science.

After some three or four millenniums, the Greeks suddenly burst free of the prison of secrecy and traditionalism, and proclaimed the freedom of intellectual enquiry. And in the second place, the type of science which it inaugurated differed radically from modern science in several ways.

Natural science, in its modern form, can fairly be said to date back no further than the seventeenth century. John the Baptist, it developed its gospel and its ministry.

Curiosity for its own sake, but also interest in industrial techniques and practical control; freedom of enquiry; experimental verification in place of authority; full publication and abundant discussion—with these a truly new phase was inaugurated.

The theoretical development was in a very low level and so was the development in mathematics.

The importance of this phase was the primitive discoveries that took place. Nedeva Maria, Lecture “The story of science”, 2006) SCIENCE FOR GENTLEMEN This period unrolls from the 15th to the 19th century, mainly in the Western and Northern Europe.In remote prehistoric times, our early ancestors worked by trial and error combined with simple, intuitive common sense.This pre-scientific approach, however, was combined with the non-scientific methods of control that we call magic, and with equally non-scientific rationalizations in the field of explanation.If we put them in an order according to chronological interest that each phase has, we could say that the first one is the pre-science phase, the second is the science for gentlemen and the third is the phase of professional science. Nedeva Maria, Lecture “The story of science”, 2006) THE PRE- SCIENCE PHASE The pre- science phase unrolled in the ancient years.In those years science appeared in Egypt, Greece, India, etc.We can meet remarkable examples of scientific achievements in technology and also in society but they will be analyzed in the next chapters.THE PHASES IN INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE As the introduction prepared us for this, we can discern three different phases in the history of institutional development of science.Once agriculture had given the possibility of settled civilizations, with written record and specialized social classes, the hand-to-mouth methods of common sense could be replaced by something much more scientific.Science was born—witness the astronomy and geometry of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.ITRODUCTION As it becomes evident from historical observations, research was creation of the curiosity which is caused by the human nature.A lot of the discoveries that occurred in the ancient years were achieved by luck.


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