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The project was funded primarily by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and also by the state of Washington, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, the European Molecular Biology Organisation, the Swedish Research Council, Karolinska Institutet, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute for General Medical Sciences, a Pew Biomedical Scholars Award, and an Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease Award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.Introduction The melamine controversy that erupted during the last quarter of year 2008 brought people’s attention back to the debates between breastfeeding and the use of breast milk substitutes like commercial infant formula.
Health care professionals influence mothers the most when it comes to infant feeding decisions.
Methodology Type of Research The type of research that will be used in this study is qualitative research and quantitative research.
By swapping out the proteins along the outside of the nanoparticle, King and his team hope to create new vaccines candidates for HIV, malaria, and even cancer.
"We believe that computationally designed nanoparticle vaccines will ultimately be simpler to manufacture and more effective than traditional vaccines," said King.
"We hope to move this vaccine candidate into clinical trials soon and to continue producing vaccines for other diseases as well." Just as a leather soccer ball is stitched from geometric patterns, the new vaccine's core is a computer-designed nanoparticle made of different parts shaped like pentagons and triangles.
Each nanoparticle is more than ten million times smaller than a poppy seed.A study of infant feeding practices was carried out on a sample of 100 mother and infant pairs.The results revealed that only 20% of mothers in the study currently exclusively breastfeed their babies.The study also showed that mothers who are married and living with their partners are more likely to breastfeed their infants than single mothers.Those with higher educational attainment resort more to formula feeding and mixed feeding than those with lower educational attainment.In the United States, RSV is the leading cause of pneumonia in babies under a year old.According to the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease, RSV is responsible for an estimated 64 million infections and causes 160,000 deaths globally each year.It also included scientists from Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden; Vaccine Formulation Institute in Godalming, United Kingdom; European Virus Bioinformatics Center in Jena, Germany; the Vaccine Formulation Laboratory at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland; and the Institute of Microbiology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zu? Several of the Seattle researchers have launched a biotech company called Icosavax to manufacture the RSV vaccine candidate and evaluate it in clinical trials.Icosavax will also apply the nanoparticle platform to design and test vaccines for other infectious diseases.The outsides of these nanoparticles were fitted with inert RSV proteins to create the vaccine.Those RSV proteins are prefusion-stabilized variants of the F glycoprotein trimer developed at the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease Vaccine Research Center at the National Institutes of Health.