Research Paper On Recycling

Research Paper On Recycling-37
However, the manner in which energy is rendered into a useable form, by generating electricity, or extracting and refining petroleum, etc., will almost certainly entail some sort of environmental impact. This may involve the disturbance of fish spawning via hydroelectric dams, the creation of nuclear waste from reactors, the seepage 7 of tailings from tar sand processing, or any number of other potential ecological side effects.

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It was found that recycling, based on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, does reduce environmental impact, but that this benefit can be increased by recycling fibre multiple times, and through the integration of more than one management method.

Keywords Paper waste management, paper recycling, energy-from-waste, cogeneration, landfill methane 3 Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………4 Energy……………………………………………………………………………………6 Energy from Waste………………………………………………………………7 Transportation……………………………………………………………………8 Methane Recovery……………………………………………………………….8 Cogeneration……………………………………………………………………..9 Conserved Fibre………………………………………………………………….10 Option Comparisons……………………………………………………………..11 Analysis…………………………………………………………………………..13 Greenhouse Gases………………………………………………………………………..14 Forest Carbon…………………………………………………………………….15 Emissions from Energy…………………………………………………………..15 Emissions Reductions……………………………………………………………18 Analysis…………………………………………………………………………..21 Discussion………………………………………………………………………………..21 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….23 Index of Tables Table 1: Net Energy from Paper Waste Management Options (one cycle)……………...12 Table 2: Sources of Fossil Fuel Energy in Pulp and Paper Production in Canada………16 Table 3: Inputs of Fossil Fuel Energy per Tonne of Virgin Pulp and Paper Production...17 Table 4: Energy based CO2 Emissions per Tonne of Virgin Paper by Fuel Type………17 Table 5: Greenhouse Gas Reductions for Paper Waste Management Options….……….19 Index of Figures Figure 1: Net energy surplus from combinations of paper disposal options (four cycles)….13 Figure 2: Net Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from combinations of paper disposal options (four cycles)…………………………………………...20 Index of Appendices Appendix 1: Energy Recovery from Landfill Methane………………………………….31 Appendix 2: Electrical Energy Yield from Paper Waste from EFW…………………….31 Appendix 3: Cogeneration Energy Yield from Paper Waste…………………………….31 Appendix 4: Cogeneration Energy Yield from Conserved Fibre………………………..31 Appendix 5: Virgin and Recycled Paper Energy Costs in Canada………………………32 Appendix 6: Net Energy yields from Waste Paper Management Options, Multiple Cycles……………………..……………………………………...32 Appendix 7: Proportion of Electrical Consumption for Virgin and Recycled Paper (using Schmidt et al.

Incineration, the disposal of solid waste through high temperature combustion to produce electricity, is becoming more common as competing land use pressures and environmental concerns render landfills less feasible.

Cogeneration, the combustion of a fuel to generate both electricity and useable heat, can be applied to waste paper as well.

Also, if paper is recycled, the conserved timber can potentially be used as an energy source.

These options, as well as various combinations of them should be considered as potential alternatives to recycling and landfill alone. Energy One of the most fundamental measurements of the effectiveness of recycling is its ability to reduce energy consumption, either by limiting transportation costs for waste products, or by using preprocessed feedstock that is more readily refined into finished products. Comparative Life Cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity Generation. Energy, simply the ability to do work, is itself is not damaging to the environment. Of this, 5 almost 7 million tonnes are consumed domestically, representing a per capita consumption of almost 250 kg, trailing only the United States and Japan, and easily surpassing the approximately 30 to 40 kg required for education and communication (Abramovitz and Mattoon 1999). Despite the widespread access to recycling in Canada, only an estimated one-quarter is recovered for remanufacturing, (PPPC 2007), well below the global average of 40% (Earth Trends 2003). In order to limit this, conservation of energy is a primary goal in the environmental movement, and a driving force behind recycling. Energy from Waste When determining the comparative energy efficiency of recycling, the equation is not simply one of how much less energy it consumes versus other options. The answer to the latter question depends on what it is to which recycling is being compared. This is no longer the era of the simple recycle-or-landfill dichotomy. Paper as a material has a long history of recycling, beginning with the collection of discarded linens for the earliest Chinese paper mills in the 2 nd century C. However, it was not until the latter part of the 20 th century, that the driving force behind the reprocessing and reuse of raw materials became the protection of the environment. Paper recycling has particular significance for Canada, since it is the world’s 4th largest producer of paper, responsible for the milling of over 30 million tonnes of paper annually (NRCan 2008a), a full 6% of the global total (Earth Trends 2003).

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