Indeed, the moon mission required many different sectors to be involved — from aerospace to textiles, and many different actors to work together on multiple solutions.
Today’s missions are more complex and ‘wicked’ than going to the moon.
The internet was not discovered as an ex-ante objective, but to solve the problem that scientists had in the late 1960s to allow multiple computers to communicate on a single network.
This led to the creation of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) funded by the U. Department of Defence, and later the Internet in all of our smart products today.
They can create more ‘additionality’ — making investments happen that would not have otherwise.
It can also become an opportunity to better link industrial strategy to innovation policy.Of course we all recognise that science is needed to produce medicines, but what is the role of research and innovation in producing a more ‘caring’ society and solutions to health care ?Equally, while we know that science is needed for the emergence of renewable energy, what is the role of research and innovation in producing economies that are more sustainable across areas of production, distribution and even consumption patterns?They also require more civic engagement, as it has become increasingly clear that European tax must be used to work on problems that matter to European society.This is not about a box ticking exercise to solve one problem after another.For the next framework programme (Framework 9), a mission approach will help steer investments towards tackling challenges using a more focussed problem-solving lens.Problems are more specific than challenges, but much broader than a specific technology or a sector.And how can we use innovation to build cities that are more enjoyable to live in?The good news is that we don’t have to look very far for lessons to learn from.The world is afflicted by problems that people experience in their daily lives: clean air in congested cities, a healthy and independent life in old age, access to digital technologies that improve public services, and treatment of diseases like cancer or obesity that continue to afflict millions of people across the globe.What is the relationship between these problems and the dynamics of science, research and innovation?