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Grammar translation method was the most popular and widely used method for language teaching between the ages of 1840 to 1940.But this method was first used for teaching and learning Latin language which was not the language of common use at that time. The learners were made able to study the literature of Latin language through learning the grammatical rules of language and learning the vocabulary so that learners may translate the language in their first language and in the second language.The success of the direct method depends on the teacher’s skills and personality more than on the methodology (Richards and Rodgers, 1986).
It was based on the assumption that the learners of foreign and second language should directly think in English.
This method is against the translation of written and oral text and focuses on telling the meanings of the words through action, demonstration or real objects.
It may be a word, a phrase or a sentence (Gauridushi, 2011).
Structural approach was criticized because it was only suitable for lower grades.
Grammar translation method was criticized intensively in the nineteenth century because it was considered that this method cannot fulfill the demands of language learning in nineteenth century.
The direct method was the outcome of the reaction against the grammar translation method.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service.So the techniques will be based on the communicative language teaching and task based methods.According to Freeman (2000), Methods which are taught to the teachers make a base and give them thinking about the applicable techniques and principles according to the situation where they stand.This method focuses on directly thinking, doing discussion and conversation in second language (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).Purwarno (2006) described the aims of the direct method.They are clear about their attraction towards certain methods and also think that why have they repelled certain method.The knowledge of method is very necessary because their knowledge is base of teaching.To learn Latin language became a “mental gymnastic”. The passages were translated from the second language to the first language and vice versa (ibid).In the eighteenth century, when modern languages began to enter in the curriculum of the European countries, these languages were taught by the same methods as Latin language was taught. By the nineteenth century, this method was considered as a standard method of teaching language. Each chapter contained a certain grammatical rule and rule was practices with a lot of written exercises (ibid).