Critical Thinking Moore

The name Jimmy Carter rings a bell with some of our students, but that’s about all.This phenomenon requires a lot of replacement to keep names familiar to students cropping up in the book from time to time.

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There are more than 100 color photographs included in this edition—many of them the subject of analysis either in the caption or the accompanying text. It’s a political year as this edition emerges, and printed pages and television screens abound with images designed to make one candidate look better than another: Obama is presidential; no, Obama is wishy-washy. We rely both on our own classroom experience and on feedback from instructors who use the book in getting this balance right.

In early editions, we sometimes overdid it with lecture-type explanations.

As we get older (Moore comments on Parker’s wrinkles; Parker wonders what became of Moore’s hair), it is more and more important to remember that what’s moderately recent news for us is ancient history for most of our students.

moo86677_fm_xi 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages xii PREFACE An incoming freshman in 2008 probably has memories of only one sitting president: George W. Bill Clinton is better known as Hillary’s husband than as president.

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New Item, Softcover International Edition, Have same content as US Edition. 114 moo86677_fm_iv 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS The Credibility of Sources 118 Credibility and the News Media 121 Government Management of the News Bias Within the Media 123 Talk Radio 126 The Internet, Generally 126 Wikipedia 128 Blogs 128 Advertising Recap 122 130 134 Exercises 135 Chapter 5 Persuasion Through Rhetoric: Common Devices and Techniques Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Stereotypes Innuendo 147 148 Rhetorical Definitions and Rhetorical Explanations 149 151 153 Loaded Questions Weaselers 154 154 Downplayers 156 Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm Hyperbole 157 158 Proof Surrogates 159 Rhetorical Analogies and Misleading Comparisons Persuasion Using Visual Images Recap v 160 163 169 Exercises 169 Chapter 6 More Rhetorical Devices: Psychological and Related Fallacies 183 The “Argument” from Outrage Scare Tactics 184 186 Other Fallacies Based on Emotions Rationalizing 191 Everyone Knows . 466 Recap 467 Additional Exercises 469 Appendix 1 Essays for Analysis (and a Few Other Items) 472 Selection 1: “Three Strikes and the Whole Enchilada” Selection 2: “Controlling Irrational Fears After 9/11” 472 473 Selection 3: Excerpts from Federal Court Ruling on the Pledge of Allegiance 475 Selection 4: “Gays’ Impact on Marriage Underestimated” by Jeff Jacoby 476 Selection 5: “Bush’s Environmental Record” by Bob Herbert moo86677_fm_ix 478 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages x CONTENTS Selection 6: “Death Penalty Has No Place in the U. “And there are some important concepts that need dealing with in several chapters,” Parker continued. “We have a great new take on the two inductive argument chapters.” “And more stuff on visuals,” Parker tacked on. 111 Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information? moo86677_fm_v 188 192 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages vi CONTENTS The Subjectivist Fallacy The Relativist Fallacy 194 195 Two Wrongs Make a Right 196 Red Herring/Smoke Screen Recap 197 199 Exercises 200 Chapter 7 More Fallacies The Ad Hominem Fallacy 211 211 The Personal Attack Ad Hominem 212 The Inconsistency Ad Hominem 212 The Circumstantial Ad Hominem 214 Poisoning the Well 214 The Genetic Fallacy 214 “Positive Ad Hominem Fallacies” 215 Straw Man 215 False Dilemma 217 The Perfectionist Fallacy 220 The Line-Drawing Fallacy 220 Slippery Slope 221 Misplacing the Burden of Proof Begging the Question Recap 222 226 228 Exercises 229 Chapter 8 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic Categorical Claims 254 256 Venn Diagrams 257 Translation into Standard Form The Square of Opposition 263 Three Categorical Operations 258 265 Conversion 265 Obversion 266 Contraposition 266 Categorical Syllogisms 273 The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity moo86677_fm_vi 275 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises Real-Life Syllogisms 279 The Rules Method of Testing for Validity 283 Recap vii 278 285 Additional Exercises 286 Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols 297 298 Claim Variables 298 Truth Tables 298 Symbolizing Compound Claims 304 “If” and “Only If” 308 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions “Unless” 312 “Either . .” 312 310 Truth-Functional Arguments 314 The Truth-Table Method 314 The Short Truth-Table Method Deductions 318 322 Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns 323 Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences 328 Conditional Proof 334 Recap 338 Additional Exercises 338 Chapter 10 Three Kinds of Inductive Arguments 346 Arguing from the General to the Specific (Inductive Syllogisms) 347 Arguing from the Specific to the General (Inductive Generalizing) 348 Examples 351 Inductive Arguments from Analogy 353 Attacking the Analogy 358 Random Variation, Error Margins, and Confidence Levels 358 Everyday Inductive Arguments 360 Informal Error-Margin and Confidence-Level Indicators Fallacies in Inductive Reasoning Illicit Inductive Conversions moo86677_fm_vii 360 361 363 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages viii CONTENTS Analogies: The Rest of the Story Polls: Problems and Pitfalls 364 366 Self-Selected Samples 366 Slanted Questions 368 Playing by the Numbers Recap 368 371 Exercises 373 Chapter 11 Causal Explanation Two Kinds of Explanations 385 386 Physical Causal Explanations 386 Behavioral Causal Explanations 387 Explanatory Adequacy: A Relative Concept 389 The Importance of Testability 389 Nontestable Explanations 389 Circular Explanations 392 Unnecessary Complexity 392 Forming Hypotheses 393 The Method of Difference 393 The Method of Agreement 394 Causal Mechanisms and Background Knowledge The Best Diagnosis Method 397 General Causal Claims 396 399 Confirming Causal Hypotheses 400 Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments 400 Alternative Methods of Testing Causal Hypotheses in Human Populations 402 Nonexperimental Cause-to-Effect Studies 402 Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies 403 Experiments on Animals 403 Mistakes in Causal Reasoning 404 Confusing Effect with Cause in Medical Tests Overlooking Statistical Regression 406 Proof by Absence of Disproof 409 Appeal to Anecdote 409 Confusing Explanations with Excuses 410 Causation in the Law moo86677_fm_viii 405 410 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Recap ix 413 Exercises 413 Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning Value Judgments 437 Moral Versus Nonmoral 438 Two Principles of Moral Reasoning 438 Moral Principles 440 Deriving Specific Moral Value Judgments Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning Consequentialism 441 Duty Theory/Deontologism Moral Relativism 445 Religious Relativism 445 Religious Absolutism 446 Virtue Ethics 446 Moral Deliberation Legal Reasoning 436 440 441 443 447 456 Justifying Laws: Four Perspectives Aesthetic Reasoning 457 460 Eight Aesthetic Principles 460 Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value 462 Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth 464 Why Reason Aesthetically?If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Report copyright / DMCA form More than any other textbook, Moore and Parker’s Critical Thinking – Moore / Parker Highlights of the Ninth Edition Ù Hundreds of updated, revised, and broadened examples and anecdotes Ù Additional emphasis on critical analysis of visuals reasoning Ù Extended and revised treatment of inductive reasoning Visit the Online Learning Center at com/mooreparker9 for a wealth 9th edition ISBN-13: 978-0-07-338667-6 ISBN-10: 0-07-338667-7 Richard Parker Critical Thinking 9th edition MD DALIM #967097 6/11/08 CYAN MAG YELO BLK Ù Expanded coverage of causal reasoning Critical Thinking Ù Nearly 1,500 exercises for students to practice critical thinking skills with answers to Brooke Noel Moore Revised Pages Ninth Edition Critical Thinking Brooke Noel Moore Richard Parker California State University, Chico Chapter 12 with Nina Rosenstand and Anita Silvers moo86677_fm_i 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages Published by Mc Graw-Hill, an imprint of The Mc Graw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Now, shockingly, we hear from students using the book whose parents used it as undergraduates. Keeping Up We hope our efforts to keep the book topical, readable, and, most importantly, teachable have been responsible for the remarkable loyalty adopters have shown toward it over the years—we are both gratified and appreciative. Examples and exercises have been updated from one end of the book to the other. Donnelley & Sons Cover: Ann Cutting, Getty Images Credits: The credits section for this book begins on page 529 and is considered an extension of the copyright page. WELCOME TO THE NINTH EDITION Yes, we know: nine editions. ” (Editorial) 487 Selection 14: “Calling the Kettle Gay” by Ann Coulter 488 Selections 15A and 15B: “Make Fast Food Smoke-Free” from USA Today, and “Don’t Overreact to Smoke” by Brennan M. His past is mysterious; we’ve heard stories that he was stolen away from another publisher, and we’ve also heard that he escaped single-handedly after being captured during the fighting in Chechnya. It only took one conference call, though, to learn he meant business. Finally, Moore spoke: “Besides the usual updating, we have some serious changes for this edition,” he said. “I’m sending Gouijnstook to ride herd on the project.” We were impressed with the decisiveness. S.” by Cynthia Tucker 479 Selection 7: “Please, No More Gambling! ” by Richard Parker 481 Selection 9: Bonnie and Clyde 482 Selection 10: “Disinformation on Judges” by Thomas Sowell 483 Selections 11A and 11B: “Equal Treatment Is Real Issue— Not Marriage” from USA Today, and “Gay Marriage ‘Unnatural’” by the Rev. Sheldon 484 Selection 12: “Liberals Love America Like O. Loved Nicole” by Ann Coulter 486 Selection 13: “Is God Part of Integrity? A long moment of silence followed, then: “Do it all,” Georgiev said. Gottlieb 493 Selection 18: Letter from the National Rifle Association 494 Selections 19A and 19B: “How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? “Probably the linguistic training they get in the secret service or the KGB or whatever,” Moore guessed. Dawson 489 Selections 16A and 16B: “Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses” from USA Today, and “Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong” by Moore and Parker 491 Selections 17A and 17B: “Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws” from USA Today, and “Gun Laws Are No Answer” by Alan M. We were even more impressed that he could pronounce the name of our developmental editor, Susan Gouijnstook.Lately, we’ve relied more heavily on illustrations and, where possible, on real-life examples.This time, we’ve gone back and cleared up the treatment of several important concepts, but illustrations and examples continue to have a very strong presence.

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