Others who have scientific credentials, but operate outside of the mainstream scientific community, generate persuasive arguments for and against certain scientific claims.For example, molecular biologist Peter Duesberg has scientific credentials, but he has argued for years that HIV does not cause AIDS.Tags: Programming Homework HelpEssay On Animal TestingMarketing Plan For Restaurant BusinessMicrosoft Business PlanBeginning An Essay With A QuoteAera And Dissertation SEssay On LifeEssay Communication WorkplaceDistance Problem SolvingNetwork Security Research Papers Ieee
Creationists concluded that scientists are either liars, or they are floundering because they can’t produce any proof to support their position.
Some of these studies looked at court transcripts or oral debates that were decades old (e.g., the Weaver study as well as the Stempien and Colemen study).
We ultimately selected 72 websites (including 34, 15, and 23 websites promoting creationism, ID, and evolution, respectively).
We consider ID a type of creationism rather than an alternative to creationism.
In contrast, appeals to reason, authority, and empirical absence were the most common argument types for both creationist and ID websites.
Once we had identified the data and the claim of each of the arguments, it was our task to describe them.
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ersuasive argumentation is part of the human experience, and it is just as much a part of science as it is part of other human institutions.
In labeling part of an argument as “data” we do not imply that the data is either correct or trustworthy— merely that it has been used as support for a claim.
Pro-evolution websites overwhelmingly use arguments based on positive empirical evidence.